Parts Of Shock Absorber
A shock absorber is a mechanical transducer that converts vehicle movement into hydraulic fluid energy in form of compression or extension forces depending on its orientation to road surface. A shock absorber cushion the vibration and the jerking motion associated with irregular roads surfaces which helps keep driver alert & comfortable.
The two most common applications for standard-duty monotube gas charged semi-active -active suspension system include light trucks including sport utility vehicles and mid-size sedans. The performance of a shock absorber is based on its construction and parts. There are three important parts that the shock absorber has:
A) Outer Tube-(This is the part which is visible to us from outside): This consists of outer casing, Bump stop, seal hoop & dust cover.
B) Inner Tube:- (This part can be only seen through disassembling the shock absorber)- It consists of inner cylinder/ shaft, springs, valves and seals.(Let us discuss these below).
C) Endcaps : These consist of valve assembly including shafts, springs & valves . An ordinary car is built with two types of shock absorbers: Twin tube for small cars and Coil-over-damper twin tube for large vehicles. Shock absorbers are also classified depending on vehicle type and size i.e., light-duty, medium-duty, heavy-duty and extra heavy duty.
The above mentioned parts of shock absorber will be discussed in details as follows:
A) Outer Tube :- It consists of the following parts :
1) Outer Casing:- This is the part which protects all other parts from outside. It has a function to bear external impact and it prevents oil leakage as well.
2) Bump Stop: -Bump stop is installed at the top end of shock absorber so that when vehicle has hit any bump or obstacle then it will be prevented from hitting the top end of shock absorber.
3) Seal Hoop:– It is installed on both sides of the outer casing to prevent oil leakage as well as for outside protection.
4) Dust Cover:- This part covers and protects other parts from dust and mud etc.
5) Seal Cap:- This is a separate part through which the oil flows to outer tube from inner tube.
6) Velocities Valve:- The velocity valve assists in control of flow of oil . It consists of two parts:
a. Upper Portion:-The upper porting is installed on top of shock absorber body and the lower part is connected to seal cap.
7) Spring:- The spring acts as a support for inner tube. It helps to provide proper force to keep the balance between outer-tube & inner-tube.
8) Inner Tube:- This consists of Inverted cup, shaft, valve assembly including springs . To maintain proper balance between outer-tube & inner-tube, springs are installed in the shocks.
9) Endcaps:- These consists of valve assembly including shafts, springs & valves .
Inner Tube:- It consists of following parts :
1) Inverted Cup:- It holds oil inside it. It contains valve which is operated by a shaft. When there is no column of air in inverted cup, and when a force (acceleration) acts on the vehicle, then valve opens to let oil pass into the lower cylinder.
2) Shaft:- It connects upper & lower part of inner tube including valves & springs. The upper portion of this shaft is connected to velocity valve. When acceleration force is applied the upper portion of shaft moves down then velocity valve opens & oil passes freely into lower part.
3) Springs:- It has direct role to provide support and balance between outer tube & inner tube. These springs are placed in opposite direction . One spring is connected in clockwise direction & other one is connected in anti-clockwise direction.
4) Lower Portion of Inner Tube:- This part contains oil, valves and springs. The upper portion of this inner tube is connected to Inverted cup & lower portion is connected to velocity valve through piston rod.
5) Valves:- When acceleration force is applied then valves open and allow the oil to flows into lower part in case of metallic shock absorber & valve opens upward & allow the oil to flow back into inverted cup in case of gas filled shock absorber.
C) Endcaps: It consists of valves which regulates the flow and that maintains the performance of shock absorber. The springs in this part helps to control the load on the valves which are responsible for taking shocks away from other parts of vehicle by providing cushioning effect when it hits road irregularities . These come with two types – compression (staggered) or extension (straight).
The purpose of shock absorber is to absorb energy at every bump or irregularity in the road, thereby making vehicle travel with less vibrations and bounces. Without it riding would be pretty uncomfortable. Hopefully this article will help you to understand the Parts of shock absorber in your car.